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Judy Estrin, 2002

Estrin, a Stanford graduate who worked under "father of the internet" Vint Cerf, quickly became an influential figure in her mentor's area of expertise. Four years out of college, she co-founded Bridge Communications in 1981, and then became part of the founding team of Network Computing Devices as executive vice president and later CEO. But Estrin's crowning achievement would arguably come in 1995, when she and Precept Software research partner Bill Carrico conceived an early ancestor of internet broadcasting that they dubbed IP/TV . The idea became the foundation of a product called StreamWatch, which allowed DVD-quality streams to be relayed to Windows clients. Cisco acquired Precept three years later and made Estrin its CTO.